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After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has largely dominated politics since. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets, and fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence between 1992-98 resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent. He was reelected to a second term in 2004 and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009 after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Longstanding problems continue to face BOUTEFLIKA, including large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) in 2006 merged with al-Qa'ida to form al-Qa'ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb, which has launched an ongoing series of kidnappings and bombings targeting the Algerian Government and Western interests. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions, ending the state's monopoly on broadcast media, increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, and expanding the role of judges in administering elections. Political protest activity in the country remained low in 2011, but small, sometimes violent socioeconomic demonstrations by disparate groups continued to be a common occurrence. Parliamentary elections held in May 2012 resulted in an increase of seats for presidentially-aligned parties. Parliament in 2013 is expected to revise the constitution.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country''s socialist post-independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Thanks to strong hydrocarbon revenues, Algeria has a cushion of $173 billion in foreign currency reserves and a large hydrocarbon stabilization fund. In addition, Algeria''s external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside of hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy. The government''s efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases. Public spending has increased by 27% annually during the past five years. Long-term economic challenges include diversification from hydrocarbons, relaxing state control of the economy, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 49
$267 billion (2011 est.)
$260.6 billion (2010 est.)
$252.3 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$190.7 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 133
2.5% (2011 est.)
3.3% (2010 est.)
2.4% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 132
$7,400 (2011 est.)
$7,400 (2010 est.)
$7,200 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 12%
Industry 56.5%
Services 31.5% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 49
11.04 million (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 14%
Industry 13.4%
Construction and public works 10%
Trade 14.6%
Government 32%
Other 16% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 111
10% (2011 est.)
10% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line
23% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 2.8%
Highest 10% 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 86
35.3 (1995)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 13
33% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $73.74 billion
Expenditures $78.58 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 53
38.7% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 86
-2.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 135
8.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
Note
Data cover central government debt; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 111
4.5% (2011 est.)
3.9% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 92
4% (31 December 2010 est.)
4% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 118
8% (31 December 2011 est.)
8% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 40
$81.03 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$75.24 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 51
$117 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$108.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 95
$11.02 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$12.18 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
Wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries
Petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 157
-3.1% (2011 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 55
40.11 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 60
30.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
323 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports
49 million kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 16
2.078 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 39
312,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 15
1.694 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 117
18,180 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 16
12.2 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 10
85.14 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 28
29.86 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 7
55.28 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 146
0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 10
4.502 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 21
$21.09 billion (2011 est.)
$12.16 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 50
$72.66 billion (2011 est.)
$57.09 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners
US 23.3%, Spain 12.2%, Canada 9.5%, France 9.5%, Brazil 5.4%, Netherlands 5.4%, Germany 4.3%, Italy 4.1% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 56
$44.19 billion (2011 est.)
$38.89 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners
France 18.5%, China 10.4%, Italy 9.5%, Spain 8%, Germany 4.5% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 14
$183.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$162.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 119
$4.699 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$5.276 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home World Ranking: 66
$22.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$19.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad World Ranking: 69
$1.914 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.814 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
72.938 (2011 est.)
74.386 (2010 est.)
72.65 (2009)
63.25 (2008)
69.9 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Algeria (Algiers):


  GPS points from Algeria (Algiers)

Oued Ech Cheguig Algeria (general)

Djebel Chaalane Algeria (general)


Plaine De Marnia Wilaya De Tlemcen


Daiet El Oussif Algeria (general)

Oued Smeiira Algeria (general)

Tilmas El Krechba Algeria (general)




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