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Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again by 1996. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS held legislative elections in September 2008 and, despite promising to hold presidential elections in 2009, has since pushed through a new constitution that calls for elections in 2012.


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Geography

Location
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates
12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references
Africa

Area World Ranking: 23
Total 1,246,700 sq km
Land 1,246,700 sq km
Water 0 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total 5,198 km
Border countries
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline
1,600 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 12 nm
Contiguous zone 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone 200 nm

Climate
Semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain
Narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources
Petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use
Arable land 2.65%
Permanent crops 0.23%
Other 97.12% (2005)

Irrigated land
800 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
184 cu km (1987)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)
Per capita 22 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
Locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues
Overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
The province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo


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  Angola (Luanda):


  GPS points from Angola (Luanda)

Bongue Provincia Do Zaire

Sandala Provincia Do Uige

Gango Angola (general)

Lichingue Provincia Do Cuanza Sul

Zua Provincia De Malanje

Quimacuma Bau Provincia Do Uige

Cavovo Provincia Do Huambo

Luimbe Cuanza Norte




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