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In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 6
1,149 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 159
Over 3,047 m 4
2,438 to 3,047 m 28
1,524 to 2,437 m 64
914 to 1,523 m 54
Under 914 m 9 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 990
Over 3,047 m 1
2,438 to 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 45
914 to 1,523 m 499
Under 914 m 444 (2012)

Heliports
2 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 29,401 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 6,166 km; refined products 3,631 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 8
Total 36,966 km
Broad gauge
26,475 km 1.676-m gauge (94 km electrified)
Standard gauge
2,780 km 1.435-m gauge (42 km electrified)
Narrow gauge 7,711 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 22
Total 231,374 km
Paved
69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
Unpaved 161,962 km (2004)

Waterways World Ranking: 12
11,000 km (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 80
Total 36
By type
Bulk carrier 1, cargo 5, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4
Foreign-owned
14 (Brazil 1, Chile 6, Spain 3, Taiwan 2, UK 2)
Registered in other countries
15 (Liberia 1, Panama 5, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 1, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Arroyo Seco, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin, Ushuaia


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  Argentina (Buenos Aires):


  GPS points from Argentina (Buenos Aires)

Parada Garayalde Provincia Del Chubut

Pozo Del Gallo Provincia De Santiago Del Estero

Cerro Las Vacas Provincia De Mendoza

Santa Luisa Provincia De Buenos Aires

Rio De Las Tunas Provincia De Mendoza

Paso Cachoera Argentina (general)

Estancia El Bagual Provincia De Cordoba

Cerro Solo Argentina (general)




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