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Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession of the east coast in the name of Great Britain (all of Australia was claimed as British territory in 1829 with the creation of the colony of Western Australia). Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as frequent droughts.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Australian(s)
Adjective Australian

Ethnic groups
White 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Languages
English 78.5%, Chinese 2.5%, Italian 1.6%, Greek 1.3%, Arabic 1.2%, Vietnamese 1%, other 8.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2006 Census)

Religions
Protestant 27.4% (Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%), Catholic 25.8%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%, other Christian 7.9%, Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (2006 Census)

Population World Ranking: 53
22,015,576 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
18.3% (male 2,040,848/female 1,937,544)
15-64 years
67.7% (male 7,469,092/female 7,266,143)
65 years and over
14% (male 1,398,576/female 1,654,508) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 37.9 years
Male 37.1 years
Female 38.6 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 106
1.126% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 159
12.28 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 135
6.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 17
5.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 89% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
Sydney 4.429 million; Melbourne 3.853 million; Brisbane 1.97 million; Perth 1.599 million; CANBERRA (capital) 384,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 166
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 189
Total 4.55 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 4.87 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
4.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 9
Total population 81.9 years
Male 79.48 years
Female 84.45 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 161
1.77 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 45
8.5% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.991 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density
3.82 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 110
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 77
20,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 152
Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 27
16.4% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 80
4.5% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99%
Male 99%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 21 years
Male 20 years
Female 21 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 93
Total 11.6%
Male 12.6%
Female 10.4% (2009)


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  Australia (Canberra):


  GPS points from Australia (Canberra)

Millers Hill New South Wales

Gould Victoria

Magazine Creek South Australia

Mclartys Bore Western Australia

Granville Queensland

Conical Hill Western Australia

Finke Siding Northern Territory

Napoleons Victoria




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