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Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)


People and Society






Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized as part of Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. Corruption in the country is ubiquitous, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced in recent years due to revenue from oil production, the promise of widespread wealth resulting from the continued development of Azerbaijan's energy sector remains largely unfulfilled.


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Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates
40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references
Middle East

Area World Ranking: 113
Total 86,600 sq km
Land 82,629 sq km
Water 3,971 sq km
Includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative
Slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries
Total 2,013 km
Border countries
Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)

Maritime claims
None (landlocked)

Dry, semiarid steppe

Large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Caspian Sea -28 m
Highest point Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources
Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite

Land use
Arable land 20.62%
Permanent crops 2.61%
Other 76.77% (2005)

Irrigated land
14,300 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
30.3 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 17.25 cu km/yr (5%/28%/68%)
Per capita 2,051 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards

Environment - current issues
Local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked


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  Azerbaijan (Baku):

  GPS points from Azerbaijan (Baku)

Khanlar Xanlar Rayonu

Obudzhlu Xacmaz Rayonu

Dshengi-chai Xizi Rayonu

Rodnikovka Oguz Rayonu

Qaramammadli Fuzuli Rayonu

Muxax Cayi Azerbaijan (general)

Kyurd Qutqashen Rayonu
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