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People and Society






Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized as part of Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. Corruption in the country is ubiquitous, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced in recent years due to revenue from oil production, the promise of widespread wealth resulting from the continued development of Azerbaijan's energy sector remains largely unfulfilled.


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People And Society

Noun Azerbaijani(s)
Adjective Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups
Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census)
Almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region

Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified 1% (1999 census)

Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
Religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Population World Ranking: 91
9,493,600 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
23.2% (male 1,029,931/female 912,639)
15-64 years
70.3% (male 2,896,785/female 2,993,092)
65 years and over
6.4% (male 195,853/female 344,073) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 29.5 years
Male 27.9 years
Female 31.3 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 116
1.017% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 114
17.3 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 127
7.13 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 74
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 52% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
BAKU (capital) 1.95 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.14 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.16 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.62 male(s)/female
Total population
0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 113
43 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 71
Total 28.76 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 29.48 deaths/1,000 live births
27.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 139
Total population 71.32 years
Male 68.38 years
Female 74.68 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 136
1.92 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 115
5.8% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.794 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
7.93 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 111
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 125
3,600 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 113
Fewer than 200 (2009 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 71
8.4% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 140
2.8% of GDP (2009)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.8%
Male 99.9%
Female 99.7% (2010 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 12 years
Male 12 years
Female 12 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 80
Total 14.4%
Male 18.7%
Female 9.8% (2008)


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  Azerbaijan (Baku):

  GPS points from Azerbaijan (Baku)

Namazgyakh Ismayilli Rayonu

Dyuglyun-diza Kalbacar Rayonu

Badakand S Mkir

Cinli Zeynalli Goranboy

Hacalikand Goycay Rayonu

Bananyar Nakhichevan

Haciabdurahimoba Xacmaz Rayonu

Salynchakh Shekinskiy Rayon
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