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Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized as part of Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. Corruption in the country is ubiquitous, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced in recent years due to revenue from oil production, the promise of widespread wealth resulting from the continued development of Azerbaijan's energy sector remains largely unfulfilled.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 109
37 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 30
Over 3,047 m 5
2,438 to 3,047 m 5
1,524 to 2,437 m 13
914 to 1,523 m 4
Under 914 m 3 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 7
Under 914 m 7 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Pipelines
Condensate 1 km; gas 3,361 km; oil 1,424 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 57
Total 2,918 km
Broad gauge
2,918 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2009)

Roadways World Ranking: 74
Total 59,141 km
Paved 29,210 km
Unpaved 29,931 km (2004)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 53
Total 90
By type
Cargo 27, chemical tanker 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2
Foreign-owned 1 (Turkey 1)
Registered in other countries
2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Baku (Baki)


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  Azerbaijan (Baku):


  GPS points from Azerbaijan (Baku)

Qutqashen Qutqashen Rayonu

Gadzhigaib Quba Rayonu

Dasgasan Cabrayil Rayonu

Alincali Samux Rayonu

Suleymankend Salyan Rayonu

Hacihuseynli Quba Rayonu

Kodoman Masalli Rayonu

Zagyar Baku




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