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People and Society






Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed, emergency caretaker regime suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. In contrast to the strikes and violent street rallies that had marked Bangladeshi politics in previous years, the parliamentary elections finally held in late December 2008 were mostly peaceful and Sheikh HASINA Wajed was elected prime minister. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.


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People And Society

Noun Bangladeshi(s)
Adjective Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups
Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)

Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% (2004)

Population World Ranking: 8
161,083,804 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
34.3% (male 27,551,594/female 26,776,647)
15-64 years
61.1% (male 45,956,431/female 50,891,519)
65 years and over
4.7% (male 3,616,225/female 3,778,119) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 23.6 years
Male 23.1 years
Female 24.1 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 73
1.579% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 73
22.53 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 173
5.71 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 151
-1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 28% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
3.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
DHAKA (capital) 14.251 million; Chittagong 4.816 million; Khulna 1.636 million; Rajshahi 853,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.96 male(s)/female
Total population
0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 45
240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 47
Total 48.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 51.48 deaths/1,000 live births
46.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 147
Total population 70.06 years
Male 68.21 years
Female 71.98 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 82
2.55 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 173
3.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.295 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 112
Less than 0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 116
6,300 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 101
Fewer than 200 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases
Dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
Water contact disease Leptospirosis
Animal contact disease Rabies
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 3
41.3% (2007)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 149
2.4% of GDP (2008)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 56.8%
Male 61.3%
Female 52.2% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 8 years
Male 8 years
Female 8 years (2007)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 106
Total 9.3%
Male 8%
Female 13.6% (2006)


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  Bangladesh (Dhaka):

  GPS points from Bangladesh (Dhaka)

Sahapur Bangladesh (general)

Manoharpur Bangladesh (general)

Paikpara Borishal

Bhararia Dhaka Division

Char Khidirpur Dhaka Division

Bamandi Baliakandi Dhaka Division

Itya Bangladesh (general)

Madhyapara Borishal
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