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Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Currently EUFOR deploys around 1,300 troops in theater.


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Airports World Ranking: 127
25 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 7
2,438 to 3,047 m 4
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
Under 914 m 2 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 18
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 6
Under 914 m 11 (2012)

6 (2012)

Gas 147 km; oil 9 km

Railways World Ranking: 107
Total 601 km
Standard gauge
601 km 1.435-m gauge (392 km electrified) (2009)

Roadways World Ranking: 106
Total 22,926 km
19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)
Unpaved 3,500 km (2010)

(Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)

Ports and terminals
Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava River), Orasje


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  Bosnia And Herzegovina (Sarajevo):

  GPS points from Bosnia And Herzegovina (Sarajevo)

Mala Uvala Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Grubci Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Pavicici Republika Srpska

Jurkovica Gornja Republika Srpska

Bjelajsko Polje Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Mali Junuzovici Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

Grobljanska Kosa Republika Srpska

Celebinci Republika Srpska
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