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Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader, one of the first in the area to begin an economic recovery. Highly unequal income distribution and crime remain pressing problems.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 2
4,105 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 713
Over 3,047 m 7
2,438 to 3,047 m 28
1,524 to 2,437 m 174
914 to 1,523 m 449
Under 914 m 55 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 3,392
1,524 to 2,437 m 91
914 to 1,523 m 1,648
Under 914 m 1,653 (2012)

Heliports
13 (2012)

Pipelines
Condensate/gas 62 km; gas 13,514 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 3,729 km; refined products 4,684 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 10
Total 28,538 km
Broad gauge
5,627 km 1.600-m gauge (467 km electrified)
Standard gauge 194 km 1.440-m gauge
Narrow gauge 22,717 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 4
Total 1,751,868 km
Paved 96,353 km
Unpaved 1,655,515 km (2004)

Waterways World Ranking: 3
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 50
Total 109
By type
Bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
Foreign-owned
27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
Registered in other countries
36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Cargo ports (tonnage)
Ilha Grande (Gebig), Paranagua, Rio Grande, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
Container ports (TEUs)
Santos (2,677,839), Itajai (693,580)
Oil terminals
DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal

Transportation - note
The International Maritime Bureau reports that the territorial and offshore waters in the Atlantic Ocean remain a significant risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; 2010 saw an 80% increase in attacks over 2009; numerous commercial vessels were attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen


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  Brazil (Brasi­lia):


  GPS points from Brazil (Brasi­lia)

Baixa Da Lagoa Estado Da Bahia

Buritizinho Estado Do Piaui

Igarape Uarauayang Estado De Roraima

Pedreira Estado De Minas Gerais

Forquilha Estado Do Rio Grande Do Norte

Ponta Redondinha Estado Do Rio Grande Do Norte

Sitio Castanhal Amazonas

Capao Estado Do Parana




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