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The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Bulgarian(s)
Adjective Bulgarian

Ethnic groups
Bulgarian 76.9%, Turk 8%, Roma 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian), other (unknown) 10% (2011 census)

Languages
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Roma 3.8%, other 0.7%, other (unknown) 10.5% (2011 census)

Religions
Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim (Sunni) 7.4%, Muslim (Shia) 0.4%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Judaism) 1.7%, other (unknown) 27.4%, none 3.7% (2011 census)

Population World Ranking: 100
7,037,935 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
13.9% (male 506,403/female 480,935)
15-64 years
67.9% (male 2,367,680/female 2,446,799)
65 years and over
18.2% (male 522,343/female 769,475) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 42 years
Male 39.8 years
Female 44.2 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 224
-0.796% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 204
9.2 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 10
14.32 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 173
-2.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 71% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
-0.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
SOFIA (capital) 1.192 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.68 male(s)/female
Total population
0.92 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 152
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 106
Total 16.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 19.29 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
12.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 112
Total population 73.84 years
Male 70.24 years
Female 77.65 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 197
1.43 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 69
7.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.635 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
6.49 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 115
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 122
3,800 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 108
Fewer than 200 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 47
12.4% (2001)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 116
1.6% (2004)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 100
4.1% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 98.4%
Male 98.7%
Female 98% (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 13 years
Female 14 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 71
Total 16.1%
Male 17.8%
Female 13.7% (2009)


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  Bulgaria (Sofia):


  GPS points from Bulgaria (Sofia)

Emirchioi Oblast Silistra

Asseniowo Oblast Pleven

Dolno-byelevo Oblast Khaskovo

Suleymankioy Oblast Veliko Turnovo

Dzhumatli Oblast Stara Zagora

Mladovo Oblast Sliven

Sarnewez Oblast Stara Zagora

Ravni Rut Oblast Sofiya




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