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Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863 and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, with little of the pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 142
16 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 6
2,438 to 3,047 m 3
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 10
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 7
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Railways World Ranking: 101
Total 690 km
Narrow gauge 690 km 1.000-m gauge
Note Under restoration (2010)

Roadways World Ranking: 93
Total 38,093 km
Paved 2,977 km
Unpaved 35,116 km (2007)

Waterways World Ranking: 29
3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 21
Total 544
By type
Bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1
Foreign-owned
352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, Vietnam 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Phnom Penh, Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville)


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  Cambodia (Phnom Penh):


  GPS points from Cambodia (Phnom Penh)

Phumi Prek Bak Cambodia (general)

Phumi Rumdeng Khett Siem Reab

Russey Khett Preah Vihear

O Khlaoch (cb16)

Cambodia Cambodia (general)

Phumi Kampong Kdar Khett Kampong Chhnang

Phumi Prey Chakrei Kampong Cham

Kas Preas St Ng Treng




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