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A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the World's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.


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Economy

Economy - overview
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. Given its great natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economiccrisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada''s major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector''s tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010 and 2011 and plans to balance the budget by 2015. In addition, the country''s petroleum sector is rapidly becoming an even larger economic driver with Alberta''s oil sands significantly boosting Canada''s proven oil reserves, ranking the country third in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 15
$1.414 trillion (2011 est.)
$1.38 trillion (2010 est.)
$1.337 trillion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$1.737 trillion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 132
2.5% (2011 est.)
3.2% (2010 est.)
-2.8% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 20
$41,100 (2011 est.)
$40,500 (2010 est.)
$39,700 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 1.9%
Industry 27.1%
Services 71% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 31
18.67 million (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 2%
Manufacturing 13%
Construction 6%
Services 76%
Other 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 86
7.5% (2011 est.)
8% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line
9.4%
Note
This figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 2.6%
Highest 10% 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 103
32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 62
22.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $660.2 billion
Expenditures $747.8 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 56
38% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 161
-5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 16
87.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
85.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
Note
Figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 52
2.9% (2011 est.)
1.8% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 142
1% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 178
3% (31 December 2011 est.)
2.604% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 9
$614.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$572.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 14
$1.433 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.356 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 10
$2.831 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.731 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares World Ranking: 7
$1.907 trillion (31 December 2011)
$2.16 trillion (31 December 2010)
$1.681 trillion (31 December 2009)

Agriculture - products
Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products

Industries
Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 85
3.7% (2011 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 6
604.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 7
549.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
51.11 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
33.62 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 6
3.483 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 8
2.209 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 10
1.929 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 14
1.088 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 3
175.2 billion bbl
Note
Includes oil sands (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 4
152.3 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 10
82.48 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 5
92.4 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 15
22.53 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 21
1.754 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 186
-$48.83 billion (2011 est.)
-$49.37 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 12
$462.4 billion (2011 est.)
$393 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners
US 73.7%, UK 4.2% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 13
$461 billion (2011 est.)
$401.7 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners
US 49.5%, China 10.8%, Mexico 5.5% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 30
$65.82 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$57.15 billion

Debt - external World Ranking: 15
$1.181 trillion (30 June 2011)
$1.009 trillion (30 June 2010)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home World Ranking: 11
$601.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$561.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad World Ranking: 11
$661.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$616.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
0.9895 (2011 est.)
1.0302 (2010 est.)
1.1431 (2009)
1.0364 (2008)
1.0724 (2007)

Fiscal year
1 April - 31 March


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  Canada (Ottawa):


  GPS points from Canada (Ottawa)

Race Rocks British Columbia

Drinkwater Ontario


Umiakovik Lake Newfoundland

Kootienay River Canada (general)

Saint Louis Saskatchewan

Merbleue Quebec

Tory Islands British Columbia




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