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A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the World's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Canadian(s)
Adjective Canadian

Ethnic groups
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

Languages
English (official) 58.8%, French (official) 21.6%, other 19.6% (2006 Census)

Religions
Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)

Population World Ranking: 35
34,300,083 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
15.7% (male 2,736,737/female 2,602,342)
15-64 years
68.5% (male 11,776,611/female 11,517,972)
65 years and over
15.9% (male 2,372,356/female 3,024,571) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 41.2 years
Male 40 years
Female 42.4 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 136
0.784% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 186
10.28 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 96
8.09 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 18
5.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 81% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
Toronto 5.377 million; Montreal 3.75 million; Vancouver 2.197 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.17 million; Calgary 1.16 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population
0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 150
12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 182
Total 4.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 5.19 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 12
Total population 81.48 years
Male 78.89 years
Female 84.21 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 178
1.59 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 22
10.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
1.913 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
3.4 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 87
0.3% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 49
68,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 72
Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 14
23.1% (2004)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 65
4.9% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99%
Male 99%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 17 years
Male 17 years
Female 17 years (2004)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 74
Total 15.3%
Male 18.1%
Female 12.4% (2009)


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  Canada (Ottawa):


  GPS points from Canada (Ottawa)

Port Hastings Nova Scotia



Muchalat Inlet British Columbia

Raymore Saskatchewan

Mudie Lake Saskatchewan

Highgate Saskatchewan

Cove Island Ontario




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