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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. Remittances are also an important source of income. The Libyan conflict disrupted inflows of remittances to Chad's impoverished western region that relies on income from Chadians living in Libya. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1.5 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and have completed a 311-km pipeline and the country's first refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 128
$19.79 billion (2011 est.)
$19.48 billion (2010 est.)
$17.23 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$9.344 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 165
1.6% (2011 est.)
13% (2010 est.)
-1.2% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 193
$1,900 (2011 est.)
$1,900 (2010 est.)
$1,700 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 52.7%
Industry 6.7%
Services 40.6% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 86
4.293 million (2007)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture
80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Industry and services 20% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate
NA%

Population below poverty line
80% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 2.6%
Highest 10% 30.8% (2003)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 22
29.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $2.501 billion
Expenditures $3.482 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 114
26.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 200
-10.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 43
58.8% of GDP
56.8% of GDP

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 25
2% (2011 est.)
-2% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 74
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 55
15% (31 December 2011 est.)
14% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 142
$1.235 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 156
$1.335 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.222 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 157
$1.011 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$710.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
Cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Industries
Oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 103
3% (2010 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 192
100 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 193
93 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 49
126,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 187
2,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 60
115,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 179
1,837 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 37
1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 165
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 163
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 77
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 171
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 163
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 154
-$2.861 billion (2011 est.)
-$2.512 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 122
$4.114 billion (2011 est.)
$3.16 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic

Exports - partners
US 83.2%, China 6.8%, France 5.6% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 139
$3.512 billion (2011 est.)
$2.94 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners
Cameroon 16.9%, France 15.7%, China 10.7%, Finland 6.5%, Sweden 6%, Saudi Arabia 5%, Belgium 4.4% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 133
$887.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$638.6 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 142
$1.769 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.725 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$NA (31 December 2010)
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$NA

Exchange rates
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
480.1 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Chad (N'djamena):


  GPS points from Chad (N'djamena)

Ihan Mayo-kebbi

Sidre Chari-baguirmi

Ifoul Kanem

Diabacai Guera

Am Charma Chari-baguirmi

Binga Guera

Ouadi Orou Biltine

Borom Moyen-chari




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