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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of Chad
Conventional short form Chad
Local long form
Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
Local short form Tchad/Tshad

Government type
Republic

Capital
Name N'Djamena
Geographic coordinates 12 06 N, 15 02 E
Time difference
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira

Independence
11 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution
Passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits

Legal system
Mixed legal system of civil and customary law

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
Head of government
Prime Minister Emmanuel NADINGAR (since 5 March 2010)
Cabinet
Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Elections
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results
Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji Madou 7.8%

Legislative branch
Unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections
National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
Election results
Percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44

Judicial branch
Supreme Court; Constitutional Council; High Court of Justice; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders
Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP; Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Rebel groups

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Maitine DJOUMBE
Chancery
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
Embassy Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
Mailing address B. P. 413, N'Djamena
Telephone
[235] 251-62-11, 251-70-09, 251-77-59
FAX [235] 251-56-54

Flag description
Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
Note
Similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbol(s)
Goat (north); lion (south)

National anthem
Name "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
Lyrics/music
Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
Note Adopted 1960


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  Chad (N'djamena):


  GPS points from Chad (N'djamena)

Wadi Asounga Chad (general)

Karandeti Salamat

Mbala Kaba Logone Oriental

Zigeyre Kanem

Ouadi Tousa Ouaddai

Elemay Borkou-ennedi-tibesti

Am Djoufour Batha

Tosou Kanem




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