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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Chadian(s)
Adjective Chadian

Ethnic groups
Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)

Languages
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Religions
Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)

Population World Ranking: 75
10,975,648 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
46% (male 2,510,656/female 2,441,780)
15-64 years
51% (male 2,531,896/female 2,960,406)
65 years and over
2.9% (male 131,805/female 182,402) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 16.9 years
Male 15.8 years
Female 18 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 52
1.98% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 15
38.7 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 5
15.16 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 186
-3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 28% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
N'DJAMENA (capital) 808,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.72 male(s)/female
Total population
0.93 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 1
1,100 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 7
Total 93.61 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 99.39 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
87.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 221
Total population 48.69 years
Male 47.61 years
Female 49.82 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 22
4.93 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 79
7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density
0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 20
3.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 26
210,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 24
11,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease Meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease Rabies (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 12
33.9% (2004)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 128
3.2% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
Total population 34.5%
Male 45%
Female 24.2% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 7 years
Male 9 years
Female 5 years (2009)


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  Chad (N'djamena):


  GPS points from Chad (N'djamena)

Melhe Kanem

Oulai Loko Mayo-kebbi

Nga Lac

Doon Borkou-ennedi-tibesti

Djerma Chari-baguirmi

Bahr Asum Chad (general)

Ouadi Tesou Ouaddai





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