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People and Society






Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the indigenous Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche Indians were completely subjugated. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.


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People And Society

Noun Chilean(s)
Adjective Chilean

Ethnic groups
White and white-Amerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4%, other indigenous groups 0.6% (2002 census)

Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English

Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3% (2002 census)

Population World Ranking: 62
17,067,369 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
22.3% (male 1,928,210/female 1,840,839)
15-64 years
68.1% (male 5,751,091/female 5,744,014)
65 years and over
9.6% (male 680,450/female 944,156) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 32.8 years
Male 31.6 years
Female 34.1 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 128
0.884% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 140
14.28 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 171
5.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 67
0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 89% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
SANTIAGO (capital) 5.883 million; Valparaiso 865,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population
0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 131
25 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 161
Total 7.36 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 7.84 deaths/1,000 live births
6.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 53
Total population 78.1 years
Male 75.08 years
Female 81.25 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 144
1.87 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 52
8.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
1.09 physicians/1,000 population (2003)

Hospital bed density
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 76
0.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 61
40,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 19
21.9% (2003)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 120
0.5% (2008)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 104
4% of GDP (2008)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 95.7%
Male 95.8%
Female 95.6% (2002 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 15 years
Male 15 years
Female 15 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 40
Total 22.6%
Male 21.5%
Female 24.4% (2009)


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  Chile (Santiago):

  GPS points from Chile (Santiago)

Cerro Aguas Calientes Region De Antofagasta

Rio Huenue Region De Los Lagos

Quebrada Chapiquina Region De Tarapaca

Paso De Quebrada Fria Chile (general)

Cerro Alto Colorado Region Del Libertador General Bernardo O'higgins

Reyes Region Aisen Del General Carlos Ibanez Del Campo

Caleta Godoy Region De Los Lagos

Bajo Quenac Region De Los Lagos
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