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Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the indigenous Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche Indians were completely subjugated. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 16
476 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 88
Over 3,047 m 5
2,438 to 3,047 m 7
1,524 to 2,437 m 22
914 to 1,523 m 30
Under 914 m 24 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 388
2,438 to 3,047 m 5
1,524 to 2,437 m 11
914 to 1,523 m 54
Under 914 m 318 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 3,064 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 895 km; refined products 768 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 28
Total 7,082 km
Broad gauge
3,435 km 1.676-m gauge (850 km electrified)
Narrow gauge 3,647 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 59
Total 80,505 km
Paved
16,745 km (includes 2,414 km of expressways)
Unpaved 63,760 km (2004)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 74
Total 42
By type
Bulk carrier 13, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1
Foreign-owned 1 (Norway 1)
Registered in other countries
52 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Isle of Man 9, Liberia 9, Panama 14, Peru 6, Singapore 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso


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  Chile (Santiago):


  GPS points from Chile (Santiago)

Chictusa Region De Tarapaca

Puquillay Region Del Libertador General Bernardo O'higgins

Caleta Seal Region De Magallanes Y De La Antartica Chilena

Granet Region De Atacama

Loma Quemada Region Del Libertador General Bernardo O'higgins

Quitayanil Region De Los Lagos

Volcan Minchimavida Region De Los Lagos

Pisagua Region De Tarapaca




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