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For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. China since the early 1990s has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 14
497 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 452
Over 3,047 m 68
2,438 to 3,047 m 147
1,524 to 2,437 m 126
914 to 1,523 m 26
Under 914 m 85 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 45
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 2
1,524 to 2,437 m 10
914 to 1,523 m 10
Under 914 m 21 (2012)

Heliports
50 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 38,566 km; oil 23,470 km; refined products 13,706 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 3
Total 86,000 km
Standard gauge
86,000 km 1.435-m gauge (36,000 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 2
Total 3,860,800 km
Paved
3,056,300 km (includes 65,000 km of expressways)
Unpaved 804,500 km (2007)

Waterways World Ranking: 1
110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 3
Total 2,030
By type
Barge carrier 7, bulk carrier 621, cargo 566, carrier 10, chemical tanker 140, container 206, liquefied gas 60, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 264, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23
Foreign-owned
22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2)
Registered in other countries
1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin


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  China (Beijing):


  GPS points from China (Beijing)

Tarhu Nei Mongol

Santiaogang Jiangsu

Qagan Us He Qinghai

Ssu Anhui

Baidiyang Fujian

Dazhushan Dao Shandong






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