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A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot-occupied area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), but it is recognized only by Turkey. The election of a new Cypriot president in 2008 served as the impetus for the UN to encourage both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reopen unification negotiations. In September 2008, the leaders of the two communities began negotiations under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The talks are ongoing and the leaders continue to meet regularly. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Cypriot(s)
Adjective Cypriot

Ethnic groups
Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)

Languages
Greek (official), Turkish (official), English

Religions
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other (includes Maronite and Armenian Apostolic) 4%

Population World Ranking: 160
1,138,071 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
16.2% (male 93,280/female 88,022)
15-64 years
73.4% (male 427,752/female 394,578)
65 years and over
10.4% (male 50,761/female 66,096) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 35.1 years
Male 33.8 years
Female 36.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 74
1.571% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 166
11.44 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 151
6.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 11
10.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 70% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
NICOSIA (capital) 240,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population
1.04 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 154
10 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 153
Total 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 10.72 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 55
Total population 78 years
Male 75.21 years
Female 80.92 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 193
1.45 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 106
6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.3 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
3.72 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 120
0.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 144
Fewer than 1,000 (2007 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 48
12.3% (2003)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 102
4.1% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 97.6%
Male 98.9%
Female 96.3% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 14 years
Female 14 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 110
Total 9%
Male 8.6%
Female 9.4% (2008)


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  Cyprus (Nicosia):


  GPS points from Cyprus (Nicosia)

Petra Kionos Paphos District

Kochinoyia Limassol

Mesana Paphos District

Pano Korajissa Nicosia District

Merika Larnaca District

Limni Larnaca

Panayia Khryseleousa Nicosia District

Ayios Epiphanios Nicosia District




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