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People and Society






What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected Presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections, under the new constitutional framework, were held in April 2009, and voters re-elected President Rafael CORREA.


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People And Society

Noun Ecuadorian(s)
Adjective Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups
Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Spanish (official), indigenous (Quechua, Shuar)

Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%

Population World Ranking: 67
15,223,680 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
30.1% (male 2,301,840/female 2,209,971)
15-64 years
63.5% (male 4,699,548/female 4,831,521)
65 years and over
6.4% (male 463,481/female 500,982) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 26 years
Male 25.4 years
Female 26.6 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 84
1.419% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 90
19.6 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 184
5.01 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 136
-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 67% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
Guayaquil 2.634 million; QUITO (capital) 1.801 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.92 male(s)/female
Total population
0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 66
110 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 100
Total 19.06 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 22.37 deaths/1,000 live births
15.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 83
Total population 75.94 years
Male 73 years
Female 79.04 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 93
2.38 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 139
5% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
1.48 physicians/1,000 population (2000)

Hospital bed density
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 74
0.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 64
37,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 54
2,200 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases Dengue fever and malaria
Water contact disease Leptospirosis (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 76
6.2% (2004)

Education expenditures

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 91%
Male 92.3%
Female 89.7% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 13 years
Female 14 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 81
Total 14.1%
Male 11.7%
Female 18.1% (2009)


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  Ecuador (Quito):

  GPS points from Ecuador (Quito)

Cerros De Balsamo Provincia De Manabi

Quebrada Rumichaca Provincia Del Carchi

Izamba Provincia Del Tungurahua

Hacienda Chuguin Chico Provincia Del Canar

Quebrada Caledonias Provincia Del Azuay

Quebrada De Chaquira Provincia De Pichincha

El Coroso Provincia Del Guayas

Rocafuerte Provincia De Francisco De Orellana
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