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What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected Presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections, under the new constitutional framework, were held in April 2009, and voters re-elected President Rafael CORREA.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 20
431 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 101
Over 3,047 m 3
2,438 to 3,047 m 5
1,524 to 2,437 m 18
914 to 1,523 m 23
Under 914 m 52 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 330
914 to 1,523 m 40
Under 914 m 290 (2012)

Heliports
2 (2012)

Pipelines
Extra heavy crude 434 km; gas 5 km; oil 1,378 km; refined products 1,262 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 90
Total 965 km
Narrow gauge 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 85
Total 43,670 km
Paved 6,472 km
Unpaved 37,198 km (2006)

Waterways World Ranking: 53
1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 72
Total 44
By type
Cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 9, petroleum tanker 28, refrigerated cargo 1
Registered in other countries 4 (Panama 3, Peru 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar


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  Ecuador (Quito):


  GPS points from Ecuador (Quito)

Zoo Provincia De Morona Santiago

Quebrada Barro Guayco Provincia Del Azuay

Bahia Ysabel Galapagos

Rio Paco Provincia Del Guayas

Isla De La Esperanza Provincia Del Guayas

Anafo Provincia De Imbabura

El Rosario Provincia De Pichincha

Quebrada Chaquihscahuaicu Provincia De Pichincha




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