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The UN awarded Eritrea to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. Eritrea hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) on the border with Ethiopia. Eritrea's denial of fuel to the mission caused the UN to withdraw the mission and terminate its mandate 31 July 2008. An international commission, organized to resolve the border dispute, posted its findings in 2002. However, both parties have been unable to reach agreement on implementing the decision. On 30 November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission remotely demarcated the border by coordinates and dissolved itself, leaving Ethiopia still occupying several tracts of disputed territory, including the town of Badme. Eritrea accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and called on Ethiopia to remove its troops from the TSZ that it states is Eritrean territory. Ethiopia has not accepted the virtual demarcation decision. In 2009 the UN imposed sanctions on Eritrea after accusing it of backing anti-Ethiopian Islamist insurgents in Somalia.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 156
58,000 (2011)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 174
241,900 (2011)

Telephone system
General assessment
Inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system
Domestic
Combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is less than 5 per 100 persons
International
Country code - 291; note - international connections exist

Broadcast media
Government controls broadcast media with private ownership prohibited; 1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio operates 2 networks; purchases of satellite dishes and subscriptions to international broadcast media are permitted (2007)

Internet country code
.er

Internet hosts World Ranking: 175
870 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 140
200,000 (2008)


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  Eritrea (Asmara):


  GPS points from Eritrea (Asmara)

Gullui Plain Eritrea (general)

Gardadda Eritrea (general)

Daghilo Eritrea (general)

Torrente Erghisciai Eritrea (general)

Monte Damasciai Eritrea (general)

Daui Rori Eritrea (general)

Kutur Eritrea (general)

Dogali Eritrea (general)




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