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After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Estonian(s)
Adjective Estonian

Ethnic groups
Estonian 68.7%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.2%, Finn 0.8%, other 1.6% (2008 census)

Languages
Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)

Religions
Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)

Population World Ranking: 156
1,274,709 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
15.1% (male 99,919/female 94,066)
15-64 years
67.2% (male 410,132/female 451,736)
65 years and over
17.7% (male 74,803/female 152,307) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 40.8 years
Male 37.2 years
Female 44.1 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 223
-0.65% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 181
10.43 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 16
13.6 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 179
-3.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 69% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
TALLINN (capital) 399,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.49 male(s)/female
Total population
0.84 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 183
2 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 164
Total 6.94 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 8.07 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
5.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 116
Total population 73.58 years
Male 68.3 years
Female 79.19 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 196
1.44 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 153
4.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.409 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
5.71 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 42
1.2% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 97
9,900 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 85
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases Bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne disease Tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 38
14.4% (2004)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 60
4.9% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.8%
Male 99.8%
Female 99.8% (2010 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 16 years
Male 15 years
Female 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 19
Total 27.3%
Male 31.8%
Female 21.2% (2009)


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  Estonia (Tallinn):


  GPS points from Estonia (Tallinn)

Kad'ya Harjumaa

Roela Jogevamaa

Kurks Harjumaa

Joesuu Hiiumaa

Mudaste Hiiumaa

Myza Saksa Viljandimaa

Rehemae Harjumaa

Ereste Viljandimaa




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