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Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission(EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for 41% of GDP and 85% of total employment. Coffee has been a major export crop. The agricultural sector suffers from poor cultivation practices and frequent drought, but recent joint efforts by the Government of Ethiopia and donors have strengthened Ethiopia's agricultural resilience, contributing to a reduction in the number of Ethiopians threatened with starvation. The five-year Growth and Transformation Plan that Ethiopia unveiled in October 2010 presents a government-led effort to achieve the country's ambitious development goals. The banking, insurance, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted significant foreign investment in textiles, leather, commercial agriculture and manufacturing. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; land use certificates are now being issued in some areas so that tenants have more recognizable rights to continued occupancy and hence make more concerted efforts to improve their leaseholds. While GDP growth has remained high, per capita income is among the lowest in the world.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 73
$96.09 billion (2011 est.)
$89.36 billion (2010 est.)
$82.74 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$31.26 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 22
7.5% (2011 est.)
8% (2010 est.)
10% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 212
$1,100 (2011 est.)
$1,100 (2010 est.)
$1,000 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 41%
Industry 13%
Services 46% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 17
37.9 million (2007)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 85%
Industry 5%
Services 10% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate
NA%

Population below poverty line
29.2% (FY09/10 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 4.1%
Highest 10% 25.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 115
30 (2000)
40 (1995)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 59
22.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $5.355 billion
Expenditures $5.988 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 185
17.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 74
-2% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 71
43.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
51.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
Note
Official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 221
33.2% (2011 est.)
8.1% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate
NA%

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 49
15% (31 December 2011 est.)
14.5% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 90
$6.706 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.684 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 101
$11.51 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$8.211 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 93
$11.99 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$8.652 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
Cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish

Industries
Food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 16
9.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 120
3.715 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 128
3.357 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 169
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 100
47,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 154
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 97
33,480 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 99
430,000 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 177
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 173
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 94
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 188
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 53
113 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 137
-$1.656 billion (2011 est.)
-$425.4 million (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 127
$2.75 billion (2011 est.)
$2.4 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Coffee, khat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds

Exports - partners
Germany 13.7%, China 11.8%, Belgium 7.5%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, US 6%, Italy 4.9%, Sudan 4.1% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 104
$8.25 billion (2011 est.)
$7.365 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

Imports - partners
Saudi Arabia 10.2%, China 10.2%, US 7.8% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 108
$2.665 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.766 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 100
$7.989 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$7.147 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Birr (ETB) per US dollar -
16.899 (2011 est.)
14.41 (2010 est.)
11.78 (2009)
9.57 (2008)
8.96 (2007)

Fiscal year
8 July - 7 July


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