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Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission(EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Conventional short form Ethiopia
Local long form
Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
Local short form Ityop'iya
Former Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
Abbreviation FDRE

Government type
Federal republic

Capital
Name Addis Ababa
Geographic coordinates 9 02 N, 38 42 E
Time difference
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)

Independence
Oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)

Constitution
Ratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995

Legal system
Civil law system

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)
Head of government
[Acting] Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 August 2012); note - Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM assumed office due to the death of former Prime Minister MELES
Cabinet
Council of Ministers ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
Elections
President elected by both chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
Election results
GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%

Legislative branch
Bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 23 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
Election results
Percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 499, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, HNL 1, FORUM 1, APDO 1, independent 1

Judicial branch
Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)

Political parties and leaders
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]; All Ethiopian Unity Organization or AEUO [Hailu SHAWEL]; Arena Tigray [GEBRU Asrat]; Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO [Abdulkader MOHAMMED]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamiso]; Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP [MUSHE Semu]; Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) [Dr. Moga FRISSA]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi]; Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM; Gurage Peoples Democratic Front [GIRMA Bogale]; Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein]; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM; Oromo People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF [BUH Hussien]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP [Abdulfetah Sheck ABDULAHI]; South Ethiopian People's Democratic Union or SEPDU [TILAHUN Endeshaw]; United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Dr. NEGASSO Gidada]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission Ambassador GIRMA Birru
Chancery
3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX [1] (202) 587-0195
Consulate(s) general Los Angeles
Consulate(s) New York

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Donald E. BOOTH
Embassy Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
Mailing address P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
Telephone [251] 11-517-40-00
FAX [251] 11-517-40-01

Flag description
Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
Note
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

National symbol(s)
Abyssinian lion

National anthem
Name
"Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
Lyrics/music
DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
Note Adopted 1992


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  Ethiopia (Addis Ababa):


  GPS points from Ethiopia (Addis Ababa)

Meyu The State Of Oromia

Sorgenti Bughi Gambela Regional State

Alu Afar Regional State

Tumu Nationalities And Peoples, The State Of Southern Nations

Inch'ini Abo Bete Kristiyan The State Of Oromia

Bambu Nationalities And Peoples, The State Of Southern Nations

Lalu The State Of Oromia

Goshcandi Nationalities And Peoples, The State Of Southern Nations




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