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Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Finn(s)
Adjective Finnish

Ethnic groups
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)

Languages
Finnish (official) 91.2%, Swedish (official) 5.5%, other (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 3.3% (2007)

Religions
Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% (2006)

Population World Ranking: 116
5,262,930 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
16% (male 429,450/female 414,570)
15-64 years
66.1% (male 1,759,059/female 1,719,173)
65 years and over
17.8% (male 385,671/female 551,327) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 42.7 years
Male 41 years
Female 44.5 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 183
0.065% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 184
10.36 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 47
10.33 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 60
0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 85% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
HELSINKI (capital) 1.107 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population
0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 177
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 211
Total 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
3.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 40
Total population 79.41 years
Male 75.94 years
Female 83.02 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 165
1.73 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 14
11.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.735 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
6.52 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 124
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 130
2,600 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 138
Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 32
15.7% (2008)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 33
5.9% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 100%
Male 100%
Female 100% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 17 years
Male 16 years
Female 18 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 53
Total 20.5%
Male 22%
Female 18.8% (2009)


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  Finland (Helsinki):


  GPS points from Finland (Helsinki)

Sassi Province Of Western Finland

Korvenpolvi Province Of Eastern Finland

Veteli Province Of Western Finland

Pennala Etela-suomen Laani

Svartkubben Southern Finland

Pryss Province Of Western Finland

Huhtala Lapland

Kaukolammi Southern Finland




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