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Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 38
148 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 75
Over 3,047 m 3
2,438 to 3,047 m 26
1,524 to 2,437 m 10
914 to 1,523 m 21
Under 914 m 15 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 73
914 to 1,523 m 3
Under 914 m 70 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 694 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 31
Total 5,919 km
Broad gauge
5,919 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 61
Total 78,141 km
Paved
50,914 km (includes 739 km of expressways)
Unpaved 27,227 km (2009)

Waterways World Ranking: 18
7,842 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport is used frequently in the summer and is widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 51
Total 97
By type
Bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3
Foreign-owned
5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)
Registered in other countries
47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma


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  Finland (Helsinki):


  GPS points from Finland (Helsinki)

Pakola Lapland

Tsjieskuljarvi Lapland

Palkisvaara Lapland

Repola Province Of Eastern Finland

Gloskar Southern Finland

Ylonen Province Of Eastern Finland

Liperi Province Of Eastern Finland

Pahkala Province Of Western Finland




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