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People and Society






As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro. In January 2011, Germany assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.


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People And Society

Noun German(s)
Adjective German

Ethnic groups
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)


Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%

Population World Ranking: 16
81,305,856 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
13.3% (male 5,569,390/female 5,282,245)
15-64 years
66.1% (male 27,227,487/female 26,617,915)
65 years and over
20.6% (male 7,217,163/female 9,557,634) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 45.3 years
Male 44.2 years
Female 46.3 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 208
-0.2% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 217
8.33 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 38
11.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 58
0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 74% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
BERLIN (capital) 3.438 million; Hamburg 1.786 million; Munich 1.349 million; Cologne 1.001 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population
0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 165
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 208
Total 3.51 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 3.81 deaths/1,000 live births
3.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 28
Total population 80.19 years
Male 77.93 years
Female 82.58 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 200
1.41 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 56
8.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.531 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
8.17 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 126
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 50
67,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 79
Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 45
12.9% (2003)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 119
1.1% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 85
4.5% of GDP (2007)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99%
Male 99%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 16 years
Male 16 years
Female 16 years (2006)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 97
Total 11%
Male 12%
Female 9.8% (2009)


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  Germany (Berlin):

  GPS points from Germany (Berlin)

Hennenkobel Bavaria

Wieshof Bavaria

Forst Rusch Mecklenburg-vorpommern

Mitteldorf Lower Saxony

Stempel Hesse

Hoher Stein Hesse

Wurmannswies Bavaria

Nusslerliete Thuringia
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