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As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro. In January 2011, Germany assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 13
541 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 322
Over 3,047 m 14
2,438 to 3,047 m 48
1,524 to 2,437 m 60
914 to 1,523 m 70
Under 914 m 130 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 219
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 32
Under 914 m 185 (2012)

Heliports
22 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 24,688 km; oil 3,687 km; refined products 4,875 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 6
Total 41,981 km
Standard gauge
41,722 km 1.435-m gauge (20,053 km electrified)
Narrow gauge
220 km 1.000-m gauge (75 km electrified); 39 km 0.750-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 11
Total 644,480 km
Paved
644,480 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
Note Includes local roads (2008)

Waterways World Ranking: 19
7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 24
Total 427
By type
Barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 6, cargo 51, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 298, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
Foreign-owned
6 (Finland 3, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 2)
Registered in other countries
3,420 (Antigua and Barbuda 1094, Australia 2, Bahamas 30, Bermuda 14, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 12, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 3, Cook Islands 1, Curacao 25, Cyprus 192, Denmark 9, Dominica 5, Estonia 1, France 1, Gibraltar 123, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1185, Luxembourg 9, Malta 135, Marshall Islands 248, Morocco 1, Netherlands 86, NZ 2, Panama 24, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 2, Portugal 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 32, Slovakia 3, Spain 4, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 3, UK 59, US 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Bremen, Bremerhaven, Duisburg, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Lubeck, Neuss-Dusseldorf, Rostock, Wilhemshaven
Oil terminals Brunsbuttel Canal terminals


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  Germany (Berlin):


  GPS points from Germany (Berlin)

Kippes-berg Nordrhein-westfalen

Blanken-berg Bavaria

Lindenhof Land Berlin

Buschdorfer Germany (general)

Mering Bavaria

Hardhof Baden-wuerttemberg

Seeleiten See Bavaria

Frohnhausen North Rhine-westphalia




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