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Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS took over as head of state in early 2009.


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People And Society

Noun Ghanaian(s)
Adjective Ghanaian

Ethnic groups
Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% (2000 census)

Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% (2000 census)

Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1% (2000 census)

Population World Ranking: 48
24,652,402 (July 2012 est.)
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years
36.5% (male 4,568,273/female 4,468,939)
15-64 years
60% (male 7,435,449/female 7,436,204)
65 years and over
3.6% (male 399,737/female 482,471) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 21.7 years
Male 21.4 years
Female 21.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 66
1.787% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 47
26.99 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 80
8.57 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 141
-0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 51% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
ACCRA (capital) 2.269 million; Kumasi 1.773 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.82 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 32
350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 49
Total 47.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 50.64 deaths/1,000 live births
43.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 187
Total population 61.45 years
Male 60.22 years
Female 62.73 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 38
4.15 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 24
10.6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.085 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density
0.93 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 32
1.8% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 23
260,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 16
18,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases Malaria
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease Meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease Rabies
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 57
14.3% (2008)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 45
5.4% of GDP (2005)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 67.3%
Male 73.2%
Female 61.2% (2010 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 10 years
Male 11 years
Female 10 years (2009)


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  Ghana (Accra):

  GPS points from Ghana (Accra)

Kuntanase Ghana (general)

Nyamiyedru Western Region

Kosikorpe Volta Region

Asuofia Ashanti Region

Zongoin Upper East Region

Bonkro Ghana (general)

Takwassi Upper East Region

Akwe Korpe Ghana (general)
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