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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 220
1 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 1 (2012)

Roadways World Ranking: 218
Total 29 km
Paved 29 km (2007)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 32
Total 267
By type
Bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8
Foreign-owned
254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)
Registered in other countries 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Gibraltar


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  Gibraltar [ United Kingdom ] (Overseas Territory):


  GPS points from Gibraltar [ United Kingdom ] (Overseas Territory)

Ragged Staff Landing Gibraltar (general)

Jumpers Bastion Gibraltar (general)

Dudley Ward Way Tunnel Gibraltar (general)

Princess Caroline's Battery Gibraltar (general)

Punta Grande De Europa Gibraltar (general)

Mackerel Bank Gibraltar (general)

Devil's Tongue Battery Gibraltar (general)

Prince William's Battery Gibraltar (general)




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