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Greece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-Communists and Communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union in 2001. In 2010, the prospect of a Greek default on its euro-denominated debt created severe strains within the EMU and raised the question of whether a member country might voluntarily leave the common currency or be removed.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 68
82 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 67
Over 3,047 m 6
2,438 to 3,047 m 15
1,524 to 2,437 m 19
914 to 1,523 m 18
Under 914 m 9 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 15
914 to 1,523 m 2
Under 914 m 13 (2012)

Heliports
9 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 1,240 km; oil 75 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 65
Total 2,548 km
Standard gauge
1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)
Narrow gauge
961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 38
Total
116,711 km (includes 948 km of expressways) (2005)

Waterways World Ranking: 107
6 km (the 6 km long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 12
Total 860
By type
Bulk carrier 262, cargo 49, carrier 1, chemical tanker 68, container 35, liquefied gas 13, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 302, roll on/roll off 14
Foreign-owned
42 (Belgium 17, Bermuda 3, Cyprus 3, Italy 5, UK 6, US 8)
Registered in other countries
2,459 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas 225, Barbados 14, Belize 2, Bermuda 8, Brazil 1, Cambodia 2, Cape Verde 1, Cayman Islands 9, Comoros 4, Curacao 1, Cyprus 201, Dominica 4, Egypt 8, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 27, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 62, Italy 7, Jamaica 3, Liberia 505, Malta 469, Marshall Islands 408, Mexico 2, Moldova 1, Panama 379, Philippines 5, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 42, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 4, Singapore 22, UAE 3, Uruguay 1, Vanuatu 3, Venezuela 4, unknown 10) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Agioi Theodoroi, Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki


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  Greece (Athens):


  GPS points from Greece (Athens)

Lambiri Greece (general)

Artikion Greece (general)

Kamares Bay Greece (general)

Mesokhori Crete

Xiron Oros Greece (general)

Kourthiana Crete

Favatata Greece (general)

Kato Petali Greece (general)




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