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Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)

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The Mayan civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 200,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, some 1 million refugees. In January 2012, Guatemala assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of Guatemala
Conventional short form Guatemala
Local long form Republica de Guatemala
Local short form Guatemala

Government type
Constitutional democratic republic

Capital
Name Guatemala City
Geographic coordinates 14 37 N, 90 31 W
Time difference
UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Independence
15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution
31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended 25 May 1993; reinstated 5 June 1993; amended November 1993

Legal system
Civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; the Congress ratified Statute of Rome on 18 January 2012, and ICCt jurisdiction entered into force on 23 February 2012

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police may not vote by law and are restricted to their barracks on election day

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Otto Fernando PEREZ MOLINA (since 14 January 2012); Vice President Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias (since 14 January 2012); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government
President Otto Fernando PEREZ MOLINA (since 14 January 2012); Vice President Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias (since 14 January 2012)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Elections
President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 11 September 2011; runoff held on 6 November 2011 (next to be held in September 2015)
Election results
Otto PEREZ Molina elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Otto PEREZ Molina 53.7%, Manuel BALDIZON 46.3%

Legislative branch
Unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members elected through a party list proportional representation system)
Elections
Last held on 11 September 2011 (next to be held in September 2015)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - PP 26.62%, UNE-GANA 22.67%, UNC 9.50%, LIDER 8.87%, CREO 8.67%, VIVA-EG 7.87%, Winaq-URNG-ANN 3.23%, PAN 3.12%, FRG 2.74%, PU 2.70%, other 3.59%; seats by party - PP 57, UNE-GANA 48, LIDER 14, UCN 14, CREO 12, VIVA-EG 6, PAN 2, Winaq-URNG-ANN 2, FRG 1, PU 1, VICTORIA 1; note - changes in party affiliation now reflect the following seat distribution: as of 2 March 2012 - PP 62, LIDER 25, UCN 18, Independents 12, CREO 11, GANA 9, UNE 8, VIVA 3, EG 3, PAN 2, PAN 4, FRG 1, PU 1, Winaq 1, URNG 1, VICTORIA 1

Judicial branch
Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitucionalidad is Guatemala's highest court (five judges and five alternate judges are elected by Congress for concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members are elected by Congress to serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)

Political parties and leaders
Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Rodolfo NEUTZE]; Democratic Union or UD [Edwin Armando MARTINEZ Herrera]; Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Jaime Antonio MARTINEZ Lohayza]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector Alfredo NUILA Ericastilla]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Luis Fernando PEREZ]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ]; National Unity for Hope or UNE; National Welfare or Bien [Fidel REYES Lee]; Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]; New National Alternative or ANN [Pablo MONSANTO]; Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias]; Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON]; Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen]; Victoria (Victory) [Abraham RIVERA]; Winaq [Rigoberta MENCHU]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Alliance Against Impunity or AI (which includes among others Center for Legal Action on Human Rights (CALDH), and Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA)); Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF (which includes among others the Agrarian Chamber (CAMAGRO) and the Industry Chamber of Guatemala (CIG)); Guatemalan Chamber of Commerce (Camara de Comercio); International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala or CICIG; Mutual Support Group or GAM; Movimiento PRO-Justicia

International organization participation
BCIE, CACM, CELAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Julio Armando MARTINI Herrera
Chancery
2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone [1] (202) 745-4953
FAX [1] (202) 745-1908
Consulate(s) general
Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Phoenix, Providence, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Arnold A. CHACON
Embassy
7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
Mailing address DPO AA 34024
Telephone [502] 2326-4000
FAX [502] 2326-4654

Flag description
Three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue, with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) representing liberty and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles signifying Guatemala's willingness to defend itself and a pair of crossed swords representing honor and framed by a laurel wreath symbolizing victory; the blue bands stand for the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea and the sea and sky; the white band denotes peace and purity

National symbol(s)
Quetzal (bird)

National anthem
Name
"Himno Nacional de Guatemala" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
Lyrics/music
Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE
Note
Adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911


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  Guatemala (Guatemala City):


  GPS points from Guatemala (Guatemala City)

San Juan Departamento De Jutiapa

Cerro Las Viboras Departamento De Jutiapa

Chacua Departamento De Huehuetenango

Caliaj Departamento De Solola

Quebrada Tio Alejo Departamento De El Progreso

Hierba Buena Departamento De Guatemala

Rio Moca Departamento De Suchitepequez

La Morena Departamento De Jutiapa




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