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Settled by Norwegian and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th centuries A.D., Iceland boasts the world's oldest functioning legislative assembly, the Althing, established in 930. Independent for over 300 years, Iceland was subsequently ruled by Norway and Denmark. Fallout from the Askja volcano of 1875 devastated the Icelandic economy and caused widespread famine. Over the next quarter century, 20% of the island's population emigrated, mostly to Canada and the US. Denmark granted limited home rule in 1874 and complete independence in 1944. The second half of the 20th century saw substantial economic growth driven primarily by the fishing industry. The economy diversified greatly after the country joined the European Economic Area in 1994, but Iceland was especially hard hit by the global financial crisis in the years following 2008. Literacy, longevity, and social cohesion are first rate by world standards.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of Iceland
Conventional short form Iceland
Local long form Lydveldid Island
Local short form Island

Government type
Constitutional republic

Capital
Name Reykjavik
Geographic coordinates 64 09 N, 21 57 W
Time difference
UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
8 regions; Austurland, Hofudhborgarsvaedhi, Nordhurland Eystra, Nordhurland Vestra, Sudhurland, Sudhurnes, Vestfirdhir, Vesturland

Independence
1 December 1918 (became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown); 17 June 1944 (from Denmark; birthday of Jon SIGURDSSON leader of Iceland's 19th Century independence movement)

Constitution
16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944; amended many times

Legal system
Civil law system influenced by the Danish model

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996)
Head of government
Prime Minister Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR (since 1 February 2009)
Cabinet
Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
Elections
President is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held on 28 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2012); note - the presidential election of 28 June 2008 was not held because Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON had no challengers; he was sworn in on 1 August 2008; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually the prime minister
Election results
Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON elected president; percent of vote - Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON 85.6%, Baldur AGUSTSSON 12.5%, Astthor MAGNUSSON 1.9%

Legislative branch
Unicameral Althingi (parliament) (63 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 25 April 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Alliance 29.8%, Independence Party 23.7%, Left-Green Movement 21.7%, Progressive Party 14.8%, Citizens' Movement 7.2%, other 2.8%; seats by party - Social Democratic Alliance 20, Independence Party 16, Left-Green Movement 14, Progressive Party 9, Citizens' Movement 4
Note
The Citizens' Movement disintegrated in September 2009; three of its former MPs are now represented under the banner of The Movement and the fourth former MP is an MP for the Left-Green Movement); three MPs from the Left-Green Movement left the party during early 2011 (two are now independents and the third has joined the Progressive Party); one MP left the Progressive Party in August 2011 and is now an independent

Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed for life by the president); eight district courts (justices are appointed for life by the president)

Political parties and leaders
Independence Party (Sjalfstaedisflokkurinn) or IP [Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON]; Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin-graent frambod) or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party (Frjalslyndiflokkurinn) [Sigurjon THORDARSON]; The Movement (Hreyfingin) [Birgitta JONSDOTTIR]; Progressive Party (Framsoknarflokkurinn) or PP [Sigmundur David GUNNLAUGSSON]; Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) or SDA [Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR]

International organization participation
Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Gudmundur A. STEFANSSON
Chancery
House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW #509, Washington, DC 20007
Telephone [1] (202) 265-6653
FAX [1] (202) 265-6656
Consulate(s) general New York

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Luis E. ARREAGA
Embassy Laufasvegur 21, 101 Reykjavik
Mailing address
US Department of State, 5640 Reykjavik Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-5640
Telephone [354] 562-9100
FAX [354] 562-9118

Flag description
Blue with a red cross outlined in white extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors represent three of the elements that make up the island: red is for the island's volcanic fires, white recalls the snow and ice fields of the island, and blue is for the surrounding ocean

National symbol(s)
Gyrfalcon

National anthem
Name "Lofsongur" (Song of Praise)
Lyrics/music
Matthias JOCHUMSSON/Sveinbjorn SVEINBJORNSSON
Note
Adopted 1944; the anthem, also known as "O, Gud vors lands" (O, God of Our Land), was originally written and performed in 1874


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  Iceland (Reykjavik):


  GPS points from Iceland (Reykjavik)

Holgerdi East

Heljardalur (ic28)

Skeggjastadir (ic20)

Sel (ic31)

Torfufell (ic09)

Sauranes (ic29)

Eidisvatn (ic21)

Vatnsfell (ic23)




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