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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. After decades of repressive rule, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 6
38.618 million (2011)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 6
236.8 million (2011)

Telephone system
General assessment
Domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
Domestic
Coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
International
Country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media
Mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately-operated (2008)

Internet country code
.id

Internet hosts World Ranking: 42
1.342 million (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 22
20 million (2009)


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  Indonesia (Jakarta):


  GPS points from Indonesia (Jakarta)

Ketopang Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta

Tubu Sakutuinan East Nusa Tenggara

Poedeme Papua

Boeloe Toempoe Indonesia (general)

Lae Tarap North Sumatra

Boekit Kajoeabang Indonesia (general)

Tjipedes Jawa Barat

Nglanggeran Wetan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta




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