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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. After decades of repressive rule, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew an estimated 6.1% and 6.4% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a small current account surplus, a fiscal deficit below 2%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government in 2012 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of rising oil prices.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 16
$1.139 trillion (2011 est.)
$1.07 trillion (2010 est.)
$1.008 trillion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$845.7 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 38
6.5% (2011 est.)
6.2% (2010 est.)
4.6% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 156
$4,700 (2011 est.)
$4,500 (2010 est.)
$4,300 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 14.7%
Industry 47.2%
Services 38.1% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 5
117.4 million (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 38.3%
Industry 12.8%
Services 48.9% (2010 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 73
6.6% (2011 est.)
7.1% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line
12.5% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 3.3%
Highest 10% 29.9% (2009)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 77
36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 15
32% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $134.2 billion
Expenditures $144.1 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 189
15.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 65
-1.2% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 116
24.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
25.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 139
5.4% (2011 est.)
5.1% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 59
6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
Note
This figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 60
12.4% (31 December 2011 est.)
13.252% (31 December 2010 est.)
Note
These figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 35
$96.63 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$67.34 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 32
$317.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$274.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 36
$307.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$254.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares World Ranking: 24
$390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
$360.4 billion (31 December 2010)
$178.2 billion (31 December 2009)

Agriculture - products
Rice, cassava (manioc), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries
Petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 78
4.1% (2011 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 23
141.2 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 26
126.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 23
1.03 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 18
1.292 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 32
404,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 18
767,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 28
3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 12
82.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 23
40.47 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 8
42.33 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 206
0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 13
3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 40
$2.069 billion (2011 est.)
$5.146 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 27
$201.5 billion (2011 est.)
$158.1 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners
Japan 16.6%, China 11.3%, Singapore 9.1%, US 8.1%, South Korea 8.1%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.4% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 30
$166.1 billion (2011 est.)
$127.4 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners
China 14.8%, Singapore 14.6%, Japan 11%, South Korea 7.3%, US 6.1%, Thailand 5.9%, Malaysia 5.9% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 21
$110.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$96.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 32
$186.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$179.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home World Ranking: 34
$104.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$86.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad World Ranking: 37
$40.57 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$32.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
8,770.4 (2011 est.)
9,090.4 (2010 est.)
10,389.9 (2009)
9,698.9 (2008)
9,143 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Indonesia (Jakarta):


  GPS points from Indonesia (Jakarta)

Pulau Sinaboi Provinsi Riau

Rancakemit West Java

Babakalo Sulawesi Selatan

Soengai Batang Koemoe Indonesia (general)

Keliwala Eiland Indonesia (general)

Salo Lamasi South Sulawesi

Tandjoeng Nanka Bangka-belitung

Komarikja Papua




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