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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. After decades of repressive rule, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.


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Military

Military branches
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2011)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 65,847,171
Females age 16-49 63,228,017 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 54,264,299
Females age 16-49 53,274,361 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 2,263,892
Female 2,191,267 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 41
3% of GDP (2005 est.)


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  Indonesia (Jakarta):


  GPS points from Indonesia (Jakarta)

Maccodong Sulawesi Selatan

Bangorejo Indonesia (general)

Poelau Soemoer Indonesia (general)

Salabentar West Java

Pasir Pugak Indonesia (general)

Bandjaragoeng Provinsi Lampung

Pareang 1 West Java

Kenanga Indonesia (general)




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