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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. After decades of repressive rule, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Indonesian(s)
Adjective Indonesian

Ethnic groups
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Languages
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)

Religions
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Population World Ranking: 4
248,645,008 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
27.3% (male 34,165,213/female 32,978,841)
15-64 years
66.5% (male 82,104,636/female 81,263,055)
65 years and over
6.1% (male 6,654,695/female 8,446,603) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 28.5 years
Male 28 years
Female 29.1 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 114
1.04% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 105
17.76 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 156
6.28 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 152
-1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 44% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
JAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.78 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 51
220 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 73
Total 26.99 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 31.54 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
22.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 135
Total population 71.62 years
Male 69.07 years
Female 74.29 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 102
2.23 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 129
5.5% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.288 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2002)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 98
0.2% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 19
310,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 27
8,300 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases
Chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
Note
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 67
2.4% (2001)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 38
19.6% (2007)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 137
2.8% of GDP (2008)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 90.4%
Male 94%
Female 86.8% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 13 years
Male 13 years
Female 13 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 41
Total 22.2%
Male 21.6%
Female 23% (2009)


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  Indonesia (Jakarta):


  GPS points from Indonesia (Jakarta)

Penyinggahan Cibiuk Indonesia (general)

Jelegong West Java

Langgara Laut Sulawesi Tenggara

Dampjong East Java

Ujung Biang Indonesia (general)

Bumen Jawa Tengah

Ratjaksela River Indonesia (general)

Motaulumdato East Nusa Tenggara




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