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Celtic tribes arrived on the island between 600-150 B.C. Invasions by Norsemen that began in the late 8th century were finally ended when King Brian BORU defeated the Danes in 1014. English invasions began in the 12th century and set off more than seven centuries of Anglo-Irish struggle marked by fierce rebellions and harsh repressions. A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from the UK for 26 southern counties; six northern (Ulster) counties remained part of the UK. In 1949, Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973. Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace settlement for Northern Ireland is gradually being implemented despite some difficulties. In 2006, the Irish and British governments developed and began to implement the St. Andrews Agreement, building on the Good Friday Agreement approved in 1998.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun
Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)
Adjective Irish

Ethnic groups
Irish 87.4%, other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 census)

Languages
English (official, the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official, spoken mainly in areas along the western coast)

Religions
Roman Catholic 87.4%, Church of Ireland 2.9%, other Christian 1.9%, other 2.1%, unspecified 1.5%, none 4.2% (2006 census)

Population World Ranking: 119
4,722,028 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
21.1% (male 503,921/female 483,454)
15-64 years
67.3% (male 1,581,959/female 1,560,238)
65 years and over
11.6% (male 246,212/female 295,192) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 35.1 years
Male 34.8 years
Female 35.4 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 107
1.112% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 128
15.81 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 152
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 43
1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 62% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
DUBLIN (capital) 1.084 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 169
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 202
Total 3.81 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
3.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 26
Total population 80.32 years
Male 78.07 years
Female 82.69 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 129
2.01 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 62
7.6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.187 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
5.17 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 96
0.2% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 113
6,900 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 115
Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 44
13% (2002)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 66
4.9% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99%
Male 99%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 18 years
Male 18 years
Female 18 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 33
Total 24.3%
Male 30.9%
Female 17.3% (2009)


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  Ireland (Dublin):


  GPS points from Ireland (Dublin)


Kilcoltrim Carlow

Durrus Cork



Derrycoosh Mayo


Bahyvira Tipperary




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