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Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, sluggish economic growth, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the prosperous north.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 43
130 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 99
Over 3,047 m 9
2,438 to 3,047 m 31
1,524 to 2,437 m 18
914 to 1,523 m 29
Under 914 m 12 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 31
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 11
Under 914 m 19 (2012)

Heliports
5 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 18,348 km; oil 1,241 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 13
Total 20,255 km
Standard gauge
18,611 km 1.435-m gauge (12,662 km electrified)
Narrow gauge
123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,290 km 0.950-m gauge (151 km electrified); 231 km 0.850-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 13
Total 487,700 km
Paved
487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)

Waterways World Ranking: 37
2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 17
Total 681
By type
Bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
Foreign-owned
90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
Registered in other countries
201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Oil terminals
Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal


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  Italy (Rome):


  GPS points from Italy (Rome)

San Michele Fratta Friuli Venezia Giulia

Conca D' Oru Sardinia

Monte Ultana Sardinia

Casa Dell'isola Tuscany


Sant'onofrio Molise

La Guardia Italy (general)

Montecucco Lombardy




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