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Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)

Geography

People and Society

Government

Economy

Communications

Transportation

Military


Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 drove many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 41
4.011 million (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 46
19.768 million (2009)

Telephone system
General assessment
Inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
Domestic
Intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity now roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage has increased rapidly and the subscriber base now exceeds 100 per 100 persons
International
Country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2008)

Broadcast media
State owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; nearly all nationwide TV networks are wholly or partly owned by the government; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operating along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV poviders to broadcast in digital format by 2015 (2008)

Internet country code
.kz

Internet hosts World Ranking: 88
65,988 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 44
5.299 million (2009)


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  Kazakhstan (Astana):


  GPS points from Kazakhstan (Astana)

Podstepnyy Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy


Gora Mynbulak Kazakhstan (general)

Menzhapan Atyrau Oblysy

Chebarkul'skiy Aktyubinskaya Oblast'

Pervomayskiy Qostanay Oblysy

Dzhaltyr Aqmola Oblysy

Ostrov Komsomolskiy East Kazakhstan




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