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Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 drove many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Kazakhstani(s)
Adjective Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups
Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.5% (1999 census)

Languages
Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)

Religions
Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Population World Ranking: 60
17,522,010 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
21.6% (male 1,709,929/female 1,637,132)
15-64 years
71% (male 5,373,755/female 5,654,461)
65 years and over
7.4% (male 392,689/female 754,407) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 29.3 years
Male 27.9 years
Female 30.8 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 94
1.235% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 87
20.44 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 82
8.52 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 64
0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 59% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
Almaty 1.383 million; ASTANA (capital) 650,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 0.94 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.52 male(s)/female
Total population
0.92 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 106
51 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 85
Total 23.06 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 25.83 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
20.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 148
Total population 69.63 years
Male 64.34 years
Female 74.59 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 89
2.41 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 152
4.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.877 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
7.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 133
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 89
13,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 89
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 85
4.9% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 138
2.8% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.5%
Male 99.8%
Female 99.3% (1999 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 15 years
Male 15 years
Female 16 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 118
Total 6.7%
Male 6.8%
Female 8.2% (2008)


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  Kazakhstan (Astana):


  GPS points from Kazakhstan (Astana)

Taylan East Kazakhstan

Kuralai Severo-kazakhstanskaya Oblast'

Kolodets Kosak Kazakhstan (general)

Tselinnyy Severo-kazakhstanskaya Oblast'

Chegan Aktyubinskaya Oblast'

Chaykovskiy Qostanay Oblysy

Gora Karaungir Kazakhstan (general)

Gorelyy East Kazakhstan




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