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Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over a constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. UN-sponsored talks in late February 2008 produced a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. Kenya in August 2010 adopted a new constitution that eliminates the role of prime minister after the next presidential election.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 101
460,100 (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 38
24.969 million (2009)

Telephone system
General assessment
Inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
Domestic
Sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 60 per 100 persons in 2010
International
Country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Broadcast media
About a half-dozen privately-owned TV stations and a state-owned TV broadcaster that operates 2 channels; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; a large number of private radio stations, including provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2007)

Internet country code
.ke

Internet hosts World Ranking: 86
69,914 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 59
3.996 million (2009)


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  Kenya (Nairobi):


  GPS points from Kenya (Nairobi)

Wachir North-eastern

Kotaburot Sub-location Rift Valley Province

Kagoue Eastern


Bechot Range Rift Valley

Loochuk Kenya (general)

Kalima Eastern

Ngoleni Eastern




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