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A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won re-election in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, nationwide protests led to the resignation and expulsion of BAKIEV. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 98
502,200 (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 99
5.275 million (2009)

Telephone system
General assessment
Telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
Domestic
Fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership approached 100 per 100 persons in 2011
International
Country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line

Broadcast media
State-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)

Internet country code
.kg

Internet hosts World Ranking: 81
116,586 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 74
2.195 million (2009)


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  Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek):


  GPS points from Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek)

Karakoyum Naryn Oblasty

Kara-koo Issyk-kul'skaya Oblast'


Osaviakhim Naryn Oblasty

Dyudyumel' Naryn Oblasty

Ak-suu Issyk-kul'skaya Oblast'

Toguzbay Issyk-kul'skaya Oblast'

Chok-tal Issyk-kul'skaya Oblast'




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