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The name "Latvia" originates from the ancient Latgalians, one of four eastern Baltic tribes that formed the ethnic core of the Latvian people (ca. 8th-12th centuries A.D.). The region subsequently came under the control of Germans, Poles, Swedes, and finally, Russians. A Latvian republic emerged following World War I, but it was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. Latvia reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 28% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Latvian(s)
Adjective Latvian

Ethnic groups
Latvian 59.3%, Russian 27.8%, Belarusian 3.6%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Polish 2.4%, Lithuanian 1.3%, other 3.1% (2009)

Languages
Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3% (2000 census)

Religions
Lutheran 19.6%, Orthodox 15.3%, other Christian 1%, other 0.4%, unspecified 63.7% (2006)

Population World Ranking: 142
2,191,580 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
13.5% (male 152,706/female 145,756)
15-64 years
69.5% (male 747,044/female 785,521)
65 years and over
16.9% (male 121,570/female 252,111) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 40.9 years
Male 37.9 years
Female 43.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 220
-0.598% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 192
9.97 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 17
13.6 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 168
-2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 68% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
-0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
RIGA (capital) 711,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.48 male(s)/female
Total population
0.86 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 119
34 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 158
Total 8.24 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 10 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
6.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 122
Total population 72.93 years
Male 67.84 years
Female 78.3 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 208
1.33 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 57
8.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.988 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density
6.42 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 59
0.7% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 105
8,600 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 77
Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases Bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne diseases Tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 35
15.6% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 56
5% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.8%
Male 99.8%
Female 99.8% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 15 years
Male 14 years
Female 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 12
Total 33.8%
Male 38.3%
Female 27.9% (2009)


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  Latvia (Riga):


  GPS points from Latvia (Riga)

Khutora Asninas Rezeknes Rajons

Kleteri Vecpiebalgas Novads

Stacija Jaunvale Beverinas Novads

Smillaines Krustpils Novads

Dabishi Latvia (general)

Atsone Stopinu Novads

Branksas Sejas Novads

Stacija Kivuli Ropazu Novads




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