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Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Lithuanian(s)
Adjective Lithuanian

Ethnic groups
Lithuanian 84%, Polish 6.1%, Russian 4.9%, Belarusian 1.1%, other or unspecified 3.9% (2009)

Languages
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)

Religions
Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)

Population World Ranking: 131
3,525,761 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
13.8% (male 250,146/female 236,984)
15-64 years
69.7% (male 1,211,707/female 1,254,195)
65 years and over
16.5% (male 201,358/female 381,157) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 40.5 years
Male 37.8 years
Female 43 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 210
-0.278% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 202
9.34 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 36
11.4 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 145
-0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 67% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
-0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
VILNIUS (capital) 546,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.53 male(s)/female
Total population
0.89 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 161
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 171
Total 6.18 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 7.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
4.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 86
Total population 75.55 years
Male 70.72 years
Female 80.66 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 213
1.27 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 59
7.8% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.664 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
6.84 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 137
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 137
1,200 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 118
Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases Bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne diseases Tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 22
19.7% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 73
4.7% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.7%
Male 99.7%
Female 99.7% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 16 years
Male 15 years
Female 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 16
Total 29.4%
Male 35.2%
Female 21.7% (2009)


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  Lithuania (Vilnius):


  GPS points from Lithuania (Vilnius)

Ezeras Rekyva Lithuania (general)

Nemencinele Vilniaus Apskritis

Slajos Panevezio Apskritis

Sausilis Telsiu Apskritis

Pervalkay Panevezio Apskritis

Zagmantai Taurages Apskritis

Meskininkai Taurages Apskritis

Skirgailine Panevezio Apskritis




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