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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Conventional short form Luxembourg
Local long form Grand Duche de Luxembourg
Local short form Luxembourg

Government type
Constitutional monarchy

Capital
Name Luxembourg
Geographic coordinates 49 36 N, 6 07 E
Time difference
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence
1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

Constitution
17 October 1868; occasional revisions

Legal system
Civil law system

International law organization participation
Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state
Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
Head of government
Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
Elections
The monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
Note
Government coalition - CSV and LSAP

Legislative branch
Unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held by June 2014)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - CSV 38%, LSAP 21.6%, DP 15%, Green Party 11.7%, ADR 8.1%, The Left 3.3%, other 2.3%; seats by party - CSV 26, LSAP 13, DP 9, Green Party 7, ADR 4, The Left 1
Note
There is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister

Judicial branch
Constitutional Court; judicial courts and tribunals (Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation, 2 district tribunals, 3 lesser tribunals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, Administrative Tribunal and Administrative Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch

Political parties and leaders
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Gast GIBERYEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Lucien LUX]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)

International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Jean-Paul SENNINGER
Chancery
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone [1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX [1] (202) 328-8270
Consulate(s) general New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Robert MANDELL
Embassy
22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
Mailing address
American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
Telephone [352] 46-01-23
FAX [352] 46-14-01

Flag description
Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)

National symbol(s)
Lion

National anthem
Name
"Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
Lyrics/music
Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
Note
"Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg


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  Luxembourg (Luxembourg City):


  GPS points from Luxembourg (Luxembourg City)

Heidenkaul District De Diekirch

Weiler-les-putscheid District De Diekirch

Wandhaff District De Luxembourg

Waldhaff District De Luxembourg

Dievelsbach Luxembourg (general)

Herrenwald District De Grevenmacher

Lu Master Source Holdings List Luxembourg (general)

Manertchen District De Grevenmacher




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