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During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a Communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's departure from the Federation in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 49
117 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 39
Over 3,047 m 8
2,438 to 3,047 m 9
1,524 to 2,437 m 6
914 to 1,523 m 8
Under 914 m 8 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 78
914 to 1,523 m 7
Under 914 m 71 (2012)

Heliports
3 (2012)

Pipelines
Condensate 3 km; gas 1,757 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 30 km; refined products 114 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 75
Total 1,849 km
Standard gauge
57 km 1.435-m gauge (57 km electrified)
Narrow gauge
1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 43
Total 98,721 km
Paved
80,280 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
Unpaved 18,441 km (2004)

Waterways World Ranking: 20
7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 31
Total 315
By type
Bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5
Foreign-owned
26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)
Registered in other countries
82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas

Transportation - note
The International Maritime Bureau reports that the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea remain high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; in the past, commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; increased naval patrols since 2005 in the Strait of Malacca resulted in no reported incidents in 2010


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  Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur):


  GPS points from Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur)



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